Diet and Diabetes

Many chiropractors are searching for ways to ethically increase their patient loads and make clinical practice more rewarding professionally and financially.  Have you ever considered specializing in health care—preventing chronic degenerative conditions like diabetes before they can be recognized and measured quantitatively by medicine?
“Sick care” is practiced by recognizing and characterizing disease conditions (diagnosis).  Once the diagnosis is pronounced, treatment is dictated by prevailing therapeutic procedures.  However, until the disease process can be measured through lab work, there can be no acceptable procedures; hence, the guesswork of prescribing drugs for symptoms, with haphazard results.
Health care, on the other hand, is practiced by maintaining normal body functions.  Deviations from normal are caused by only one factor: stress.  Hans Selye, MD, was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Medicine in 1964 for his research on the effect of stress on the human body.  His research found that the accumulative effects of stress are predictable.  Selye said in his book, The Stress of Life, that as a medical student he was struck by the fact that most disease conditions presented similar symptoms before the disease process could actually be identified.  Fatigue, elevated temperature, swelling, redness, and pain were the most common.  This led him on a lifelong study to determine why.
Selye found that there are essentially only three kinds of stress:  mechanical, emotional, and chemical (or nutritional).  Identify the stress and remove it, and your patients who are not yet diseased will get well.  You may also have to provide proper nourishment for affected tissues to heal.  As a chiropractor, you are already an expert at identifying mechanical stress.  Emotional stress is beyond my expertise.  That leaves nutritional stress and the subject of this article—diabetes.

The Problem

The term “diabesity” (diabetes + obesity) is increasingly being used to label the patients with Type II diabetes who are overweight.  Here are the current statistics according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

  • 17 million Americans have diabetes.
  • 90% of diabetics have Type II (diet-related) diabetes.
  • 60% of adults with Type II diabetes are overweight.
  • 97% of youths diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight.

Diabetes is the leading cause of adult blindness, kidney failure, non-traumatic amputations, heart disease, and stroke.  The goal, of course, is to prevent the onset of diabetes.  The way to do that is to recognize the possibility that your patient has an Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT).  Medical practitioners have long referred to these patients as “borderline diabetics” meaning the patient has a blood glucose level that is higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.  These are the patients with whom you can best practice health care, thus preventing disease.  It is estimated that 20 million people in the United States have IGT, and that the number is rising rapidly.  It is further estimated that 50% of these people will develop Type II diabetes.  That means there are more than a few patients in your practice and in your neighborhood who could use your help.


Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson and American Diabetes Association President Christopher Saudek, MD, are asking doctors to begin screening overweight patients age 45 and older for pre-diabetes.  They state that patients with the following risk factors may develop IGT:

  • Family history of diabetes
  • Being overweight
  • Women who have gestational diabetes or have given birth to a baby weighing more than nine pounds
  • People with steroid-induced hyperglycemia
  • Those with high blood pressure
  • Those with an abnormal lipid blood profile (low HDL cholesterol and high triglyceride levels)
  • Those with any of the above and a genetic predilection are particularly at risk.  This includes African Americans, American Indians, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders.

Treatment Guidelines

Medical experts are recommending that IGT screening should include glucose monitoring and fasting lipid profiles for those at high risk, as indicated by their past health histories.  It is interesting to note they are not recommending prescription drugs for the condition.  That puts you, as a chiropractor, in the picture for specializing in health care to increase professional and financial success. 
Recognizing those patients at risk for specific future problems allows you to both teach the patient how to maintain their health and monitor their progress.  The experience is thus rewarding for you and the patient.  Preventing chronic degenerative conditions before they can be measured quantitatively does wonders for building referrals.
The Surgeon General of the United States has pointed out that many chronic degenerative diseases have their beginning with poor diet and digestion.  Yet, it is difficult to find agreement among so-called experts as to what constitutes a healthy diet.  Many doctors do not take the time to inquire into their patients’ dietary habits, primarily because of the lack of objective clinical findings that suggest a problem exists. 
The easiest and most definitive screening procedure for problems in this area is identifying persistent or recurring loss of a normal thoracic kyphosis.  Generally, it is a transitory condition related to muscle contraction and not osseous abnormality.  It is most commonly caused by muscle contractions associated with viscero-somatic reflexes from those organs that receive their spinal innervations from T4 to T9.  The list includes the heart, lungs, bronchi, stomach, pancreas, spleen, liver, gallbladder, and adrenal glands.
When loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis (so-called “anterior dorsals”) is found, palpate for postprandial muscle contractions under the right and left anterior costal arches and in the epigastric area.  Palpatory muscle contraction (trigger points) and soreness will always help delineate the stressed digestive organ.  Inquiry into the patient’s last meal will be quite instructive.  These findings are often, but not necessarily, associated with chronic headache patterns.
When no digestive stress is present (the presence of symptoms is irrelevant) and blood glucose levels are normal, muscle contractions under the costal arches and in the mid-thoracic spine will not be found.  Henri Gillet, DC, found that 3-to-10 cups of coffee will produce them!1  Consider the correlation between this and the following two studies.
A study released by the Harvard School of Public Health in 2002 found that men who eat processed meats (such as bacon and sausage) are 46% more likely to develop Type II diabetes than men who eat less of these foods.  Over 40,000 healthy men between the ages of 40 and 75 were studied.  The results were dose-related; that is, the highest incidence was among those men who ate processed meat five or more times per week.2
Also, a study of the effects of caffeine on blood sugar levels was completed in 2002.3  It is known that caffeine can enter the brain and directly increase blood pressure and stimulate the release of stress hormones (cortisol).  These hormones are known to affect insulin and, therefore, blood sugar levels.  Insulin sensitivity was measured in selected healthy individuals after administration of caffeine or placebo.  The caffeine administered was the equivalent of three cups of coffee.  The study showed that caffeine increased both blood pressure and stress hormone levels.  It decreased the effectiveness of insulin by 15%.
Poor diet, inadequate digestion, stress, and caffeine all play a role in the development of Type II diabetes, which is now reaching epidemic proportions.  Pharmaceutical companies will continue to develop drugs for its treatment, but the best approach is drug-free prevention, according to Daniel Einhorn, MD, director of the Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute.  He states that loss of 5-to-7% of body weight within one year coupled with walking or bicycling 150 minutes a week (thirty minutes per day) is the best therapy known.  But, he says that most people will need the guidance of a health care professional to achieve those results.4  Why shouldn’t that health professional be you? TAC

Howard F.  Loomis, Jr., DC, president of Enzyme Formulations, Inc., has an extensive background in enzymes and enzyme formulations.  As president of 21st Century Nutrition, Inc., for fifteen years, he has forged a remarkable career as an educator, having conducted over 400 seminars to date in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Australia, on the diagnosis and treatment of enzyme deficiency syndromes.  Call 21st Century Nutrition at 1-800-662-2630 for more information.

A New Perspective on the Treatment of Athletes

I have worked with many elite athletes over the years and have always found the experience challenging and enlightening.  I say challenging because of the level of excellence they demand.  It is not good enough simply to get a top-level athlete out of pain.  The demands they place on their bodies require that every part work at its optimal level.  Joints, muscles, ligaments and bone are required to perform at or near the limit of their tolerances, and are continually being subjected to tremendous forces of strain and impact.
I have found that, in order to meet these challenges and provide for the needs of these patients, it is essential to address the fundamental causes of structural imbalance.  Disturbances of muscle tone and fascial tension asymmetries are time bombs waiting to explode in the form of muscle and ligament tears and serious joint injury.  These events can destroy an athlete’s career and, in my opinion, they are highly preventable.

Health at the Molecular Level

Dr. Stephen Levin, an orthopedic surgeon, noticed some unusual reactions in certain muscles and ligaments he was repairing, while performing surgery, which he could not explain.  Not long after this he happened to visit the Smithsonian Institute.  He noticed a large skeleton of a dinosaur and wondered how the massive structure could possibly support itself against the force of gravity.   Coincidentally, just across the hall, there stood a remarkable sculpture by Kenneth Snelson.  The sculpture consisted of rigid struts suspended in space by tensioning cables.  Snelson was a student of Buckminster Fuller.  When the famed architect and engineer saw the way these structures supported themselves in space, he conceived of the term tensegrity—meaning held together by tension and compression—which he then went on to incorporate in his now famous structures, such as the geodesic dome. 
It struck Levin that the tensegrity form could explain not only how the dinosaur held itself up, it could also account for his observations during surgery.  From these realizations he developed the concept that the tension icosohedron (the basic element of the tensegrity structure) was the basic structure of all organic life. 
In the January 1998 issue of Scientific American, a feature article entitled The Architecture of Life appeared, outlining the research of Dr. Donald Ingber, the Harvard cell biologist.  His studies and other research using powerful electron microscopes and other computer-based techniques have been able to confirm that tensegrity is the structural basis of all life on the planet.  It has now been proven that the underlying structure of all life on the planet is actually a continuous, tension and compression arrangement of molecules and protein strands, very similar to the sculptures conceived by Kenneth Snelson in the 1940’s. 

The Molecular Framework of the Body

The concept of tensegrity implies that the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, organs, the nervous system—every cell, right down to the level our DNA—the blueprint of life itself—are interconnected with every other cell as one continuous fabric.  I have referred to this microscopic framework as the Tensegrity Matrix.  This stable and flexible structure links everything together into a unified whole.
Abnormal tension on this fabric or matrix may arise due to injuries, such as falls, and/or motor vehicle accidents, and the presence of scar tissue, and may become trapped within the molecules of a particular area of the body.

Matrix Repatterning

Matrix Repatterning (MR) is based on this new understanding of the molecular structure of the body.  It is able to detect, with a high level of precision, and permanently release the deep underlying restrictions associated with injuries, scar tissue or other forms of stored tension in the body.  The primary restrictions may be painless themselves, but represent the primary sources of tension leading to strain patterns in many other areas of the body.  The strained tissues, which arise due to the primary restriction, are often the location of symptoms, such as pain, swelling and abnormal movement and function.  The Matrix Repatterning practitioner is trained to locate and correct these patterns at their source, gently and permanently. 

Case Study 1: An Athlete Finds a Second Lease on Life

I was contacted by a chiropractor working in a large sports medicine facility.  He contacted me to assess a frustrating case.  Despite repeated treatment, using state-of-the-art methods, the patient was not progressing.  In my examination, I found that the patient’s thigh muscles and hip muscles were seriously imbalanced.  Indeed, the other members of his treatment team had discovered the same problems and had valiantly tried to stretch and goad these muscles into some semblance of symmetry.  Unfortunately, they had been unsuccessful. 
I found that the primary restrictions were actually within the bones of the patient’s hip and femur, and proceeded to release these tension patterns.  With one treatment, I was able to restore balance to the muscles of his hips and thighs. 
The decathlete, Mack Cunningham, had progressed significantly and, with a few more treatments, was able to fully re-enter his training program.  He is now preparing for the 2004 Olympics.

Case Study 2: They’re at the Post!

The young veterinarian had heard of me through a patient.  Dr. David Jamieson had taken many other seminars to help him treat his favorite animals—thoroughbred racehorses.  As the seminar proceeded, I kept pondering how in the world he would be able to adapt my technique to these rather large animals. 
Shortly after the seminar, I received a call from Dr. Jamieson, requesting I meet him at the racetrack.  He led me to one of the barns and introduced me to Doris Day, a beautiful bay.  He explained that, two months before, she had been rounding a turn and had been forced by another horse into the rail.  Something snagged—perhaps part of her saddle—and she was flipped onto her rear end with a powerful jolt.  The rider fell off, and both animal and human had to be helped off the track.
The horse had never been the same since.  She was obviously in a lot of pain and could not tolerate anyone mounting her.  Dr. Jamieson mentioned that she was now very “girthy”, a term used to describe a horse whose trunk has expanded beyond its normal dimensions.  The horse appeared to be very skittish, with a wild, fearful look in her eyes.  Dr. Jamieson was quick to point out that she was normally a very calm, manageable animal. 
We found a process of testing and treatment that work very well for these animals.  We were able to quickly detect the primary areas of restriction, which proved to be centered in the large organs of the trunk, as expected.  Treatment quickly released these areas and Doris Day was immediately restored to her normal sexy figure.  Within a few days, she was able to begin training once again and she was returned to her productive racing schedule within several more weeks.
Treating other horses proved to be equally successful and Dr. Jameison, under my guidance, has been able to resolve many other injuries.  Many of the horses treated using Matrix Repatterning have astounded both the trainers and the jockeys.  They have found these animals are now much more balanced and consistent in their performance.  One of our goals for the future is to develop a training program for veterinarians and other practitioners to be able to treat animals more effectively.

Thoroughbred racehorses are like other elite athletes, in that they are pushing the limits of their physical structures on an ongoing basis.  The lessons learned by treating these magnificent creatures have helped me develop even better approaches for human athletes and have also served to confirm for me the power and value of Matrix Repatterning and tensegrity matrix as viable and consistent frameworks for understanding the structural basis of health and life. TAC

For more information about Matrix Repatterning, contact Dr. George Roth at 905-880-0101, Fax: 905-880-0550, e-mail [email protected], or visit www.MatixRepatterning,com.

New Year’s Technology Rules-olutions from a “Techno-Geek” The Importance of the “Preemptive Strike”

OK, so I’m powering by Bill Gates’ house in my boat (no joke, he’s right there on Lake Washington), and thinking, “Wouldn’t it be fun to do to Bill what Tony Soprano did to his new lawyer-neighbor in the last episode of “The Sopranos?  Set my sport yacht right there in front of his house, with speakers blasting—but, instead of Frank Sinatra, pipe in the nasty tech support calls which come into Microsoft over it’s most recent ‘new and improved’ software?” 
So we have the topic of my January 2003 set of “David’s Rules”. 
 Remember, the key is to live a stress-free partnership with technology.  That means OUTSMARTING it.  “Preemptive Strike” is the key phrase.  Get it before it gets you.

New Strategy for 2003:  Instead of buying your new computer, or upgrading your current computer with a software CD, and finding out the hard way that there are problems with the operating system itself, do the following BEFORE you install any new application software or peripheral devices:

  1. Preemptive strike with Brand New Computer setup or upgrade to Windows XP:  Contact Technical support or the website for a new product you plan to install.  Find out what changes have occurred with your software installation, and follow the new instructions, if there are any on the website.   In other words, take a few moments to check out the website for last minute changes in the installation process, which may not have been documented in the installation software.
  2. XP is notorious for having multitudes of little gremlins running around your machine from the day you get it.  Thanks to the internet, Microsoft now provides automatic updates to your system which should “kill” as many of those gremlins as possible.  These days, the FIRST thing you should do when purchasing a new computer, or upgrading your computer to XP is to perform a “windows update” immediately after the upgrade or setup finishes.  It is relatively simple:
    – Setup your new computer or upgrade to XP.
    Get online.
    – Go to Start, Help & Support, Pick a Task, Windows Update.  Follow the relatively simple instructions, and your system will actually “heal itself”.  Be aware that it could take up to several hours, so plan for this.  Your input is not required for most of the process, but you should be around, just in case the computer needs a decision from you.
  3. Preemptive Strike with installation of new software applications:  Most software manufacturers get a huge discount for creating a huge number of software CD’s at once, so the software on your CD may be months old.  RULE:  The Software CD in your hand is an illusion.  The real software is sitting on a website somewhere for you to download.  When installing software, first, download the most recent upgrade from the software company’s website. Next, install the software CD.  Then, install the update you downloaded.  Reboot your computer, and now you have the latest software prior to working with it and finding out there are serious bugs.

I just installed ACT 6.0 on my system.  Believe it or not, the instructions on their website are totally different than the software’s own installation program would suggest.  If there had not been technical support there to help, the program would  never have worked.  Note that I waited for them to release a software “fix” on their website prior to purchasing the upgrade.  I wanted the other less suspicious (and probably less experienced) users to experience the pain required for the new update, first. 
I find this so unacceptable that all software produced by my company is beta tested for months prior to releasing it.  The new release of the our 2k3 software is in its 36th revision PRIOR to being released.  Most marketing companies ship products and THEN figure out how to get them to work.  Engineering companies like ours, create thoroughly tested products and THEN ship to customers.  I’ve noticed that doctors who become more technologically savvy almost always choose products with great engineering over the ones with slick advertising. 

Windows 98 Essential Technical Tips:

  1. If still using Windows 98, make certain to reboot the system once daily, as there are problems with Windows 98 machines getting “messed up” from sitting too long.  If you even noticed Windows 98 getting unstable, this is the most common cause.
  2. Backup up the system entirely once yearly, and run the computer’s recovery CD (if you have it) once per year to restore Windows 98 to its optimal working order.  Windows 95/98 has a tendency to develop something similar to arthritis over time, and the only true fix is to restore to original setup, and re-install your software applications yearly.  If you start having trouble with the system crashing, this is the time to perform the recovery.  The hardest part is reinstalling your software applications, so make sure you have them all,  prior to this process.

Technology can be your best friend or worst enemy.  By finding the best product and support for your needs, you will have a great partner in building your practice.  Follow the simple guidelines above, and you will enjoy all, the advantages of technology without the stress. TAC


The author, David Marcarian, MA, is founder and president of Precision Biometrics, supplier of the MyoVision SEMG  and Thermoglide systems.  He has worked for NASA, and was awarded a $450,000 grant from the NIH for developing the MyoVision.  He lectures for Palmer College of Chiropractic and his course is endorsed by all U.S. chiropractic associations that mandate SEMG training.  He has personally instructed more than 6,000 chiropractors on proper SEMG use.  Mr. Marcarian can be reached at 800-969-6961 and via email at: [email protected], or visit his company’s website at

Partial Agenesis of the C1 Posterior Arch

Embrylology.  Ossification of the first cervical vertebra begins about the seventh fetal week at the lateral masses, and proceeds perichondrally in a dorsal direction, creating the posterior arch of the atlas.  In the second year of life, a secondary growth center for the posterior tubercle develops between these neural arches.  Complete fusion of the posterior arch should be noted between the third and fifth years.1

Description.  The basic defect in agenesis of the posterior arch of the atlas is the lack of a cartilage template on which the ossification process builds.  Complete or partial agenesis of the posterior arch is rare, and the posterior arch defects, by themselves, should not be the cause of neurologic or biomechanical findings unless found in association with other anomalies such as Klippel-Feil syndrome.1,2,3

Radiologic Features.  An absent posterior arch can be easily visualized on standard lateral cervical radiographs by the lack of a bony posterior neural arch.  A commonly associated finding with complete agenesis is enlargement of the superior aspect of the second cervical spinous process, which has been referred to as a mega-spinous process, representing fusion of a rudimentary posterior arch and posterior tubercle of the atlas.2  One may also observe increased size of the anterior arch of C1, which is thought to be stress related.  This is a helpful radiographic sign and suggests a long-standing and probable congenital origin to the missing posterior arch of the atlas.3 TAC

Dr. Terry R. Yochum is a second-generation chiropractor and a cum laude graduate of the National College of Chiropractic, where he subsequently completed his radiology specialty.  He is currently Director of the Rocky Mountain Chiropractic Radiological Center, in Denver, CO, an Adjunct Professor of Radiology at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic, as well as an instructor of Skeletal Radiology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO.  Dr. Yochum is, also, a consultant to Health Care Manufacturing Company that offers a Stored Energy system.  For more information, Dr. Yochum can be reached  at: (303) 940-9400 or by e-mail at [email protected].

Chiropractic News Around the World

Life University Takes Another Hit: Students File Lawsuit

GEORGIA:  When it rains it pours.  Less than two weeks after losing its chiropractic accreditation, Life University faces 75 current and former students filing suit, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reports.
Filing in Fulton County Superior Court, the plaintiffs seek a jury trial and damages.  Students claim emotional and financial suffering because of the university’s neglect in losing accreditation for its largest degree program.  Without program accreditation, students will not receive licenses to practice in most states, reports the Journal.
The students asked the judge to grant class-action status, according to the Journal.
Chiro Wire

New Law Aims to Stamp Out Prostitution Rings in Chiropractic Practices

CALIFORNIA:  Because a handful of California chiropractic practices offered more than massage therapy to customers, the industry faces state requirements that change hiring policies for massage therapists.
Under a state Republican directed law, California cities can now require licensing and training for massage therapists who work for chiropractors.  Prior to the legislation, unlicensed assistants could work for chiropractors.
Fountain Valley plans to be the first city to enforce the law aimed at stamping out prostitution rings springing up in chiropractic practices, the Los Angeles Times reports.  State officials claim the rule will help them dismantle office fronts, behind which unlicensed assistants operate prostitution business under the protection of licensed chiropractors.  The state chiropractic board has already confiscated a dozen practice licenses in the last two years, and continues to investigate twenty others.
Chiro Wire

Chiropractic “Fraud Buster” Named “Investigator of the Year”

ILLINOIS:  Lewis D. “Dennie” Huggins, a special agent of the National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB) received the Investigator of the Year Award from the International Association of Special Investigative Units (IASIU).  The award recognizes the positive impact a fraud investigator’s efforts had on their special investigative unit, company, the insurance industry and community, in addition to the unique and exceptional qualities of the investigation.
The West Virginia-based NICB, newly promoted to Area Director, Dennie Huggins, was cited for his outstanding efforts in uncovering a countrywide fraud scam of nearly 700 chiropractic clinics in 35 states involving an estimated $50 million in bogus claims.  Huggins uncovered the “Halstead” system, named after Ronald L. Halstead, the chiropractor consultant who developed it.  The alleged scam involved chiropractors who were taught to set up multiple corporations that used a medical doctor to allow the chiropractor to bill under the medical doctor’s CPT code, generating greater revenues than if the proper code had been used.

Chiropractor Sentenced to Prison Term for Disguising Services as Medical Rehab

NEW YORK:  A suburban New York chiropractor has been sentenced to serve a term of 33 months in prison and pay $2.3 million in criminal forfeiture for his role in a multi-million-dollar scheme to disguise chiropractic services as rehabilitative medical services.  The chiropractor, Andrew Orlander of Chappaqua, N.Y., and his corporate entity, Allstate Managed Services, Inc., pleaded guilty March 7 to charges of conspiracy, health care fraud, and mail fraud arising from the operation of medical facilities in Westchester and Rockland counties, north of New York City.  In January 2000, Orlander, and his company, together with four other defendants, were charged in a 115-count indictment with converting chiropractic practices into false medical practices, thus allowing Orlander to bill for services at higher rates, conceal his control over the operations, and reap substantial profits.
As part of the scheme, Orlander paid a physician, Mark Greenbaum, to serve as the nominal owner of the facilities for the purposes of meeting regulatory requirements, prosecutors charged.  Greenbaum pleaded guilty March 6 and is awaiting sentencing, prosecutors said.  The three other defendants in the case also are awaiting sentencing after pleading guilty, prosecutors said, among them, another chiropractor, Alexander Regalbuto. 
In investigating the case, undercover agents posing as personal injury attorneys were able to obtain false and misleading letters and reports from the medical facilities for use in litigation against insurance carriers, prosecutors said.  In sentencing Orlander, Judge Charles L. Brieant of U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York also gave the Allstate corporate entity two years’ probation, with the condition that it dissolve within six months.

25 Indicted in Global Child Porn Ring

CALIFORNIA:  A Clovis chiropractor has been indicted for allegedly being at the heart of an international internet child pornography ring.  So far, twenty-five people across the United States and Europe have been charged with conspiring to sexually exploit children.  Of those, four were indicted in their home countries of England and Germany, the rest in the United States.
Police began investigating after authorities in Denmark received a tip from a charity about a picture on the internet of a child being molested.  Information found on a Danish couple’s computer eventually led to a chiropractor in Clovis. 
Police discovered more than 1 million images on 450 CD’s in the DC’s office, many with pictures of the children of his patients, relatives or neighbors.  If convicted, the doctor faces up to 35 years in federal prison.
The Fresno Bee & Associated Press TAC

Children and Rehabilitation

Children, like adults, often need to do some exercises as part of their chiropractic treatment.  But, how safe is exercise for children, especially exercise with resistance?  How much weight is appropriate for a growing body?  And which exercises are most effective?  Because of these and similar questions, doctors of chiropractic may hesitate to recommend exercises for their younger patients.  Let’s see if we can arrive at a reasoned response, based on experience and useful consensus information.

Passing Phases

Prepubescence is the phase of childhood prior to the onset of secondary sex characteristics.  Rapid, but variable growth occurs during this period, with open physes and changing muscle and ligament lengths.  Adolescence begins with the onset of secondary sex characteristics and continues until physical and skeletal maturity.  Selecting the best exercise approach for each child’s situation is important, since needs may vary during growth.1  However, all children should be encouraged to engage in frequent and regular fitness activities.

Exercise Benefits

The benefits of physical activity in youth include fitness, weight control, and the development of habits having the potential to span a lifetime.  One study systematically determined the amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity students obtain during elementary and middle-school physical education classes (time spent performing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to total class time).  The researchers concluded that the amount of physical activity observed (elementary schools, 8.6%; middle schools, 16.1%) was significantly less than the estimated national average of 27%, and far below the national recommendation of a minimum of 50%.2 
A review of current youth fitness data indicates that children in the United States are fatter, slower, and weaker than children in other developed nations.  Also, children in the United States appear to be developing a sedentary lifestyle at earlier ages.  A low level of exercise is a contributing factor for childhood obesity and hypertension, and predisposes the individual to premature death from coronary heart disease.3  Fortunately, through intervention in children and adolescents in the form of education and motivation, exercise levels may be increased to the recommended minimum of thirty  minutes on most days.4

Safety Issues

High-intensity resistance training appears to be effective in increasing strength in preadolescents.  Children make similar relative, but smaller, absolute strength gains when compared with adolescents and young adults.  Resistance training appears to have little, if any, hypertrophic effect, but, rather, has been associated with increased levels of neuromuscular activation.  Researchers have found that the risk of injury from prudently prescribed and closely supervised resistance training appears to be low during preadolescence.5  In 1993, Mazur, et al., reviewed the types and causes of injuries to preadolescents and adolescents resulting from weight lifting/training.  The researchers concluded that “prepubescent and older athletes who are well-trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programs.” 6
A risk that must be considered in the immature skeleton is the susceptibility of the growth cartilage of the epiphyseal plates (physes).  Weight training in a submaximal controlled, supervised situation is beneficial to bone deposition.  Strength training can be a valuable and safe mode of exercise provided 1) instructors are properly educated; 2) participants are properly instructed; and 3) the absolute necessity of avoiding maximal lifts is reinforced.7 
The most important factors in avoiding injury in children who are doing resistance exercises are proper performance of the exercise; avoiding overload by focusing on repetitions, not weight; enforcing rest periods during exercise; and resistance training only twice a week.  Exercise tubing is an excellent tool for strength training of children, since the risks of injury are minimized, and a spotter or expensive equipment is not needed.

Training Balance and Coordination

For many children, it is more important to learn the fine neurological control necessary for accurate spinal and full body performance than to simply build strength.  Better balance and coordination will often result in improved physical function, both in daily and in sports activities.  This may entail performing exercises while standing on one leg, with the eyes closed, while standing on a mini-tramp, or using a rocker board.  The advantage of these balance exercises is seen when children engage in sports activities and perform at advanced levels for their age group.
All exercises are most effective when done in an upright, weight-bearing position, since the entire body is in a closed chain position during the training.  The stabilizing muscles, the co-contractors, and the antagonist muscles all learn to coordinate with the major movers during movements that are performed during closed chain exercising.  This makes these types of exercises very valuable in the long run, particularly for children who are interested in becoming competitive athletes.

Corrective Postural Exercises

Children’s spinal problems are often associated with poor postural support.  A spinal asymmetry, such as scoliosis and kyphosis, is invariably accompanied by neuromuscular imbalance.  This may be compounded by poor postural habits and tendencies to “slump.”  One important factor in chiropractic treatment is the correction of any loss of the normal upright alignment of the pelvis and spine.  In addition to general strengthening and coordination exercises, patients (including children) should be shown corrective exercises that are specific for the postural imbalances they have developed.  For instance, when the pelvis is carried flexed forward, a patient of any age will need to retrain with resisted pelvic extension exercises.  Likewise, when there is a forward head, posterior translation exercises for the cervical region are very important.
Whenever a child shows evidence of abnormal gait or begins to develop lower extremity complaints, a careful evaluation for the need for shoe inserts is warranted.  Custom-fitted orthotics can improve performance and spinal alignment by ensuring proper lower extremity alignment, and reduce overuse injuries by providing additional shock absorption.


A well-designed exercise program for children who need to strengthen, develop better coordination, and improve postural support will allow the doctor of chiropractic to provide cost-efficient pediatric spinal care.  Exercises performed with the spine upright and functional can specifically train and condition all the involved structures to work together smoothly.  In some children, orthotic support is necessary to help ensure correct alignment from the lower extremities.  The end result is a more effective rehab component and young patients who will make a rapid response to their chiropractic care.  With a few common sense precautions and careful supervision, children are capable of performing rehabilitative exercises very safely. TAC


  1. American College of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
  2. Simons-Morton BG, Taylor WC, et al. Observed levels of elementary and middle school children’s physical activity during physical education classes.  Prevent Med 1994; 23:437-441.
  3. Cunnane SC. Childhood origins of lifestyle-related risk factors for coronary heart disease in adulthood.  Nutr Health 1993; 9:107-115.
  4. US Dept. of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: a Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta:1996. 
  5. Blimke CJ. Resistance training during preadolescence: issues and controversies. Sports Med 1993; 15:389-407.
  6. Mazur LJ, Etman RJ, Risser WL. Weight-training injuries: common injuries and preventative methods. Sports Med 1993; 16:57-63.
  7. Schafer J. Prepubescent and adolescent weight training: is it safe?  Is it beneficial? Natl Strength Conditioning Assoc J 1991; 13:39-45..

Kim D. Christensen, D.C., C.C.S.P., D.A.C.R.B., founded the SportsMedicine & Rehab Clinics of Washington.  He is a popular speaker, and participates as a team physician and consultant to high school and university athletic programs.  He is currently a postgraduate faculty member of numerous chiropractic colleges and is the president of the American Chiropractic Association (ACA) Rehab Council.  Dr. Christensen is the author of numerous publications and texts on musculoskeletal rehabilitation and nutrition.  He can be reached at Chiropractic Rehabilitation Consulting, 18604 NW 64th Ave., Ridgefield, WA 98642 or by e-mail at [email protected].

Colles’ Fracture of the Wrist

In 1814, Abraham Colles wrote the definitive description of this fracture, which consequently bears his name.1  The injury is defined as a fracture of the distal radius approximately 20-to-35 mm proximal to the articular surface, with posterior angulation of the distal fragment.  More than 60% will have an accompanying fracture of the ulnar styloid  process.1   The usual mechanism is a fall on an outstretched, extended hand.  The physical appearance of the fractured distal forearm and wrist has led to its being called the dinner fork deformity. 
The incidence of the fracture increases with age, and this increase is so rapid in women that, by age sixty-five, the lesion is six times more common in women than in men.2  Osteoporosis appears to be the underlying influencing factor.  Complications are common and may be severe.2
The radiologic features are distinctive and relatively consistent.2

  • Fracture Line.  Usually transverse and comminuted, it is normally readily visible.  A variable degree of impaction is apparent on the dorsal surface at the fracture site.
  • Radial Contour.  A sharp cortical overlap is seen at the fracture site, especially visible on the frontal projection, due to the proximal migration of the distal fragment.
  • Radial Length.  The overall length of the radius is decreased due to the proximal migration of the distal fragment.
  • Angulation.  The distal fragment is tilted dorsally, as evidenced by the altered angle of the articular surface, which is seen on the lateral projection.  Normally, there is a five-to fifteen degree palmar angulation of the articular surface.
  • Soft tissue.  The distorted skin contour is apparent.  The pronator quadratus fat plane will usually be altered. TAC

Dr. Terry R. Yochum is a second-generation chiropractor and a cum laude graduate of the National College of Chiropractic, where he subsequently completed his radiology specialty.  He is currently Director of the Rocky Mountain Chiropractic Radiological Center, in Denver, CO, an Adjunct Professor of Radiology at the Los Angeles College of Chiropractic, as well as instructor, Skeletal Radiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO.  Dr. Yochum is, also, a consultant to Health Care Manufacturing Company that offers a Stored Energy system.  For more information, Dr. Yochum can be reached  at: (303) 940-9400 or by e-mail at [email protected].

Think, Say, and Do

Integrity can be defined as congruency between what you think, say, and do.  This leads to personal effectiveness, popular influence, and positive outcomes.  However, if what you think is irrational or malevolent, followed by what you say and do, the outcomes will be destructive rather than constructive.  Some may define their level of effectiveness by the level of destruction they cause.  A terrorist is a good example.  A terrorist may have congruency between what they think, say, and do, but that doesn’t mean their brand of integrity is desirable.  This article will focus on rational, constructive thinking in the context of chiropractic.
My goal for the ideas I put forth here is to have them lead to increased success in your life and practice.  Don’t just read this; apply it, so that you may gain maximum benefit. 
Let’s start with what you think.  What is chiropractic to you?  What is your goal for every patient/practice member that walks into your office?  How will you know if you obtain this goal?  How will your patient know if this goal is obtained?  How do you explain it to your patient?  What do you and your staff do in the office in relation to these thoughts and communications?
Let’s say, for example, your thoughts conclude that chiropractic is the detection and correction of vertebral subluxation (VS).  Why?  What is a subluxation?  In other words, you should understand the thinking that has brought you to such conclusions, so that you are justified in your thoughts beyond the realm of dogma.  Let’s assume that you know enough about vertebral subluxation and chiropractic that your philosophical and scientific understanding forms your conclusions, rather than dogma.  If your goal with each patient is detection and correction of VS (this is what you think), what do you say to them?  In your thinking, is this a lifestyle concept that should last a lifetime?  If so, is this what you are saying to your patients?  Do you say to them that chiropractic is a lifestyle and not a treatment?  Is everything you say congruent with your mindset?  What questions do you ask them each time they come in?  Mind you, this is a never-ending process of refinement.  The more conscious you become of it, the greater your congruency, strength, effectiveness and integrity.  Paying attention to what you say and comparing it to what you think is a powerful exercise.  Not only should you apply it to your practice members, but also to your staff. 
Finally, what action steps do you take?  Are they congruent with what you think and say?  The most common corruption in chiropractic integrity is in the action phase.  Many chiropractors have a well reasoned out thought process when it comes to their understanding of chiropractic and VS.  These same chiropractors have education systems in place in the office so that what they are saying is congruent with what they are thinking.  The next question is, “What are you doing?”  The “doing” starts with the consultation and exam.  Many D.C.’s are still doing traditional ortho/neuro evaluations which are mostly ineffective in finding subluxation.  In this case, you are thinking it and saying it, but not doing it.  Integrity is lost and as a result so is effectiveness and success.  Today, there is technology available which makes subluxation real and demonstrates the effectiveness and necessity of chiropractic care in ways your patients can understand it.  Look into it! 
What else do you “DO”?  How about your family?  Do you do for them what you tell your patients is important?  How about for yourself?  Integrity would be doing for yourself and family exactly what you’re telling your patients.  Regular visits.  Re-exams.  Working on lowering lifestyle stress, and so on. 
Refining all these issues could take a book.  The purpose of this article is to raise the issues and get you thinking about them and acting on them.  Refinement starts on the macro level and proceeds to the micro level.  A clue to a disconnect from thought to action is unfulfilled intention.  For example, if you want to see lots of children in the practice, but it is not happening, somehow your desire in thought and vision is not manifesting.  To correct that, look for the incongruity between what you think, say, and do.  When you find the contradiction, remove it and watch things get better.  Sounds easy, but when you apply it to the whole of your life, it can get quite complex.  But heck, who needs easy.  Success and happiness are worth the effort; so stop reading and get started! TAC

A 1983 graduate of Life College, Patrick Gentempo, Jr., D.C., is co-founder and CEO of the Chiropractic Leadership Alliance, in Maywood, NJ, and co-creator of the Total Solution program.  An internationally renowned chiropractor, lecturer, and consultant, he has helped thousands of chiropractors achieve success and balance in their lives.  For information about CLA seminars, products, and services, call 800-285-2001, or visit

How to Have More Than Enough: A Step-by-Step Guide to Accessing Abundance

When most people are asked to think about what abundance means to them, their eyes narrow as they imagine winning the lottery and the unlimited Money, Freedom, Free Time, Travel, and Excitement it would bring.  We inherit a great number of false attitudes about abundance from society.  It is deeply ingrained in our unconscious that abundance comes only at the expense of others, that “money is the root of all evil”, that it is “dirty”, and it keeps one from “entering the Kingdom of Heaven”.  Another myth is that abundance is available only to a chosen few, who win abundance by being special, smart, crafty, talented, or lucky.
The truth is that money and abundance are not good or evil but are neutral, in and of themselves.  Abundance is a quality of life that is full, has “more than enough” and that abounds with love, fun, fulfillment, time, energy, money, health, and much more. Abundance is a quality of life to be experienced TODAY, not at some point in the future, when you’ve made enough, saved enough, done enough, worked hard enough, or when you think you deserve it.

Face to Face with Change

If you are not presently enjoying more than enough—something has to change.  If you keep doing what you have always done, you will keep getting the results you have always gotten.  Who really wants to get up in the morning and say, “I hope everything stays exactly the same”? Everyone would like to know that they can be better today than they were yesterday—better in business, a better parent, friend, wiser, etc.
The place to initiate change is within yourself.
Which way are you pointing?  Times of pain, disappointment, and discomfort are an opportunity for change.  People like to point their fingers and want someone else to do the changing.  Change begins with you.  Your thoughts create your reality.  What you focus on is what you attract into your life.  If you are unhappy with your life, change your focus.  Find something you like and concentrate on it. 

The Big “I”

There are five stones that make up a strong foundation.  The cornerstone of the foundation—the most important block in the whole house—is integrity.  Integrity is old-fashioned honesty.  It is doing things right and knowing that you can hold your head up high, regardless of what anyone else says or thinks.  Integrity is a commitment to truth.

Rock-Solid Commitment

Commitment is the second foundation stone. To access abundance, you must be fully committed—body, mind, and spirit—to the principles of abundance.  If your body stores fears about abundance, or if your mind remembers past fears about lack, you must dissolve these blocks before you can move forward abundantly.  Get 100% Committed!  It is much easier to sit on the fence or stand in the middle of the road.  Getting out there in front of the pack creates fears and pains that are powerful and challenging.  Overcoming this challenge and committing to give the extra effort separates you from having a good life to having an abundant one.
One of the greatest riches of the universe is that there are others from whom you can learn to gain a greater understanding of abundance.  The following seven financial baby steps are steps that everyone seeking financial abundance and the more-than-enough lifestyle can take.  A commitment to these steps will guarantee your financial success and will have spillover effects in your personal and family relationships.


Loyalty is the third value you must have in your foundation if you want to build a more-than-enough lifestyle.  Loyalty is a close cousin of integrity and commitment. Loyalty means to be faithful to a cause, a person, or an entity.  Loyalty means that you have the character to remain devoted through thick and thin.  What are you loyal to?  You should be at the top of your list.
In your practice, loyalty means that you put in the effort to make a powerful difference in the lives of your practice teammates and patients.  At home, it means you wake up early to spend time with your kids, you share the chores, and you find ways to ensure that each family member has the opportunity to realize his or her dreams.


The fourth foundation stone, compassion, is the heartfelt ability to sense and be motivated by another’s feelings.  Compassion is genuine; it’s not simply syrupy sentiment.  It is actively getting involved in the world and, especially, in your community, family, and place of worship.  Others will not care how much you know until they know how much you care.  Compassion begins with listening.


The fifth and final foundational stone is responsibility.  To build and maintain an abundant lifestyle, you must pay the price by taking responsibility for your own actions and living responsibly within your means.  When you refuse to take responsibility, you rob yourself and those around you.  Living responsibly requires you to look your resources square in the face.  You have physical limits.  There are only 24 hours in a day.  You must learn to prioritize your time and your money and your energy.  Living responsibly means not wasting your time on low priority items.  The quickest way to fritter away abundance is to focus on low priority items.

Establish “No Matter What’s”

To help solidify these five foundational values, you must establish some “no matter what’s” in your life.  As in, “I do what I know to be right despite other people’s opinions, no matter what.”  “No matter what’s” provide you with the strength to get through difficult times and to build an abundant life financially, emotionally, and spiritually.  A warning:  You will be challenged and possibly ridiculed when you establish no-matter-what’s in your life.  When you are operating under a code of discipline, your self-worth goes up, you can hold your head up high, as you know that you are sticking to something of meaning.  Abundance is a reflection of your beliefs and self-value.

Your Vision

Purity of intention will always enable you to push through any obstacles to the achievement of your goal.  As you work your way through your obstacles, you will find that these problems always come bearing gifts.  Certainty, a clear vision, and total integrity allow you to take all the gifts that come your way and use them to create abundance from apparent lack.  Consider your vision as a pair of binoculars looking at your future.
Vision is the picture you establish and maintain in your mind of where you want to go in life.  Without vision, you will flounder about aimlessly, and you won’t know what your true destination is.  You won’t know where you are going, and you won’t be able to tell if or when you ever get there.  Simply put:  You go where you look!  Your vision shapes your attitude.  People with vision can see where they want to go and refuse to give up until they get there,  regardless of the obstacles.

Your Comfort Zone

Each of us wants to access abundance in our lives, in every area: health, wealth, relationships, work, creativity and spirituality.  And, yet, in each of these areas, we all have “hidden comfort zones” which silently sabotage us, diminish us and keep us from achieving all that we are capable of.  You must release these limits—which are illusions—before you can become open to abundance.  In Think and Grow Rich, Napolean Hill states, “Whatever the mind of man can conceive and believe it can achieve.”
You can break through your hidden comfort zones by setting your eyes on the horizon rather than on your immediate situation or circumstances.  Studies of people who earn $100,000 or more each year and have maintained that income level for a number of years reveal an interesting character trait.  The six-figure earners studied all think in five-year blocks (or more) of time.  They are relatively unconcerned about today, except in terms of how today is a building block toward their vision, which may not be realized for another 20 years.  Thinking in 5-year blocks expands your vision. 

Crystallize Your Vision

An affirmation is a positive statement, in the present, of what you believe to be true.  Commit, once a day for at least a month, to sit with pen in hand and write your abundance affirmations.  Once you have written your affirmations, read them out loud with feeling.  The following is an excellent example of an affirmation:  “I release and discard any beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors which are limiting me from sharing in the abundance of the Universe.  I am worthy and deserving of claiming my birthright of abundance.  My abundance is for the highest good of all and it creates abundance for others.”
Why should you settle for less than ideal?  The vision you dare to dream is the vision you can dare to achieve!  You must be willing to DREAM BIG!  The moment you establish a clear vision, and start moving in its direction with certainty, your life will take on a new meaning and a new level of excitement.

Start Right Now!

Abundance is your birthright. It is your gift for being on the planet.  You do not need to be special or gifted or anything else.  You simply must be true to your heart and true to your spirit.  Ask for all that you desire, act accordingly, and enjoy the journey. TAC

Dr. Mark Sanna is the CEO of Breakthrough Coaching and the president of Corporate Health of America.  He can be contacted at 1-800-723-8423, on-line at [email protected], or via the company’s website

Homeopathic Answers for Vaccinations

Evidence is mounting on both sides of the vaccination issues.  Anything, from minor symptoms to lifelong diseases to death, can occur from either not being immunized or, more frighteningly, from being immunized!  Actually, the results of this vaccination perplexion is a new mental condition called “vaccination anxiety”.
The Doctor of Chiropractic is challenged with numerous professional principles, including legal, ethical and emotional issues.  The truth is the more you study both sides of the issue, the more you see a lose-lose scenario.  The good news is the benefits of homeopathy can turn this lose-lose scenario into a win-win scenario for everybody.

The Vaccination Perplexion

In recent years a growing number of doctors, researchers and concerned parents are taking a strong stand against medical vaccination procedures. 
Acute vaccination reactions usually take place within seven days of the vaccination.  The symptoms include paralysis, convulsions, nausea, dangerously high fevers, chronic nervous system disorders, acute brain inflammations (encephalitis), diarrhea, learning disabilities, hyperactivity, permanent brain damage, and death.  Doctors are required, by law, to inform parents of the numerous side effects associated with vaccination.
On the other hand, not immunizing can cause equally, if not more, devastating diseases.  The parents must also face the grief and guilt that may come from the choices they made.  Then follow the legal issues, including the potential loss of all their children to the state or, even, as a result of imprisonment.  This may seem radical, yet it could be possible. 
Routine questions heard in our offices are, “Should I have my children vaccinated?” or “What do you think of vaccination?”  These and other related questions could pose a potentially volatile position for the doctor, a well meaning friend, and especially the parents.  What if you say, “Don’t do it!”?  Or, “I wouldn’t do it,” and the person ends up with the disease?  Or do you say, “Do it” or “I would do it,” and they end up with disease traced to the immunization?  There are numerous legal, emotional, and ethical ramifications involving everybody.
Another question is whether homeopathy can be used as a safe alternative to vaccination.  Although this idea has some promising potentials, the FDA requires more research over time to safely establish this practice.  Besides being illegal, the practice of homeopathic immunization could be quite volatile, if the outcome is not totally positive.

Win-Win Solution

Homeopathy has provided the only win-win answer to this dilemma for patient, parent and doctor.  A homeopathic formula can be safely and easily used to prevent and to effectively correct the plethora of possible side effects of immunizations.  Homeopathy can turn a lose-lose scenario into a win-win solution for this perplexing issue.  The patient, the parents and the doctor all end up in the safest, healthiest position.  This is quite a rare, and exceptionally positive, scenario for everybody involved.
The homeopathic remedies have proven themselves effective over many years for the diversity of reactions to vaccinations.  The following remedies have provided most effective results through the test of time, for both the prevention and correction of most common reactions to vaccinations.

  • Aconitum Napellus
  • Apis Mellifica
  • Chamomilla
  • Hypericum Perforatum
  • Ledum Palustre
  • Pulsatilla
  • Silicea
  • Thuja Occidentalis 


These remedies can be taken individually or found in a formula for a broader therapeutic spectrum to combat the broad variety of symptoms associated with vaccination reactions.
A homeopathic formula for the reactions to vaccinations can be taken three days before vaccinations and one or two weeks after vaccinations, two or three times a day.  If you get a case after reactions have occurred, I recommend taking the homeopathic six to eight times a day.  Usually symptoms will be negated in one to two days. 
If symptoms occur after the vaccination that the above ingredients have not corrected, seek homeopathic remedies related to the symptomatic pattern.  There are homeopathic formulas for specific symptomatic expressions, such as fever, nausea, vomiting, etc.  There are also homeopathic remedies for the more elusive problems that can be associated with vaccinations.  These problems include ADD, hypersensitivity, allergies, recurring viral infections, swollen glands, emotional imbalances and skin disorders.  These conditions have specific homeopathic formulas to address them directly.
We have found many of the more elusive chronic conditions demonstrate a positive response to the homeopathic vaccination reactions formula.  This can be effective with children and adults with ADD, hyperactivity, chronic viral infections, swollen glands, allergies and other immune, mental, emotional and general chronic disorders doctors have been unable to pinpoint.
Parents can rest in having the blessing of both worlds.  You don’t have political, medical, educational or legal battles to fight.  You won’t experience that underlying grief or guilt associated with wondering if you made the right decision for your children or your patients’ children.  You can live at a greater level of peace in a win-win decision.  Homeopathy provides a pleasant alternative in a world where there are so many unanswered questions and uncertainties.
You  may be wondering whether my children are vaccinated.  The answer is no.  With over twenty-five years of homeopathic training and practice, I am confident in successfully dealing with the possible conditions that may arise.  I have successfully nipped measles, chicken pox and whooping cough in the bud in my own children.  I have treated more serious conditions in my Amish patients, like polio and other infectious diseases.  Homeopathy has an incredible success record of treating the great plagues throughout America and Europe in the 1800’s, such as small pox, yellow fever, typhoid, etc.  However, until you are well experienced with homeopathy, you may not want to carry this responsibility.


Frank J. King Jr., N.D., D.C. is a nationally recognized researcher, author and lecturer on homeopathy. In addition, Dr. King is the founder and director of King Bio Pharmaceuticals, a registered homeopathic manufacturing company dedicated to completing chiropractic destiny with the marriage of homeopathy.  Dr. King offers, complimentary, to all Doctors of Chiropractic his turnkey procedural system for the high volume practice called, The Chiropractic Enhancer systemTM (CES).  It is so easy to use that you can successfully apply homeopathy in your practice using any company’s products in one day.  Call King Bio Pharmaceuticals, Asheville, N.C. 1-800-543-3245 or e-mail [email protected]. TAC